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BANGLADESH - amar shonar?



Bangladesh is one of the world's most densely populated countries, with its people crammed into a delta of rivers that empties into the Bay of Bengal. India's three largest rivers-Ganga, Jamuna, Bramahputra and their ancillaries meet the Bay of Bengal creating a water filled land and horizon.

The low-lying country is vulnerable to flooding and cyclones, and stands to be badly affected by any rises in sea levels.

Though Bangladesh can be termed as developing economy but is close to underdeveloped economy. Poverty is deep and widespread with majority of population devoid of concept of a welfare economy. However, Bangladesh has in recent years reduced population growth and improved health and education.
Formerly East Pakistan, Bangladesh came into being only in 1971, when the two parts of Pakistan split after a bitter war which drew in neighboring India.

Bangladesh spent 15 years under military rule and, although democracy was restored in 1990, the political scene remains volatile.
Islamist extremism has been rising in the usually tolerant country.

INFRSTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH
Bangladesh is a country of a thousand rivers, large and small, and most of its territory is regularly flooded during the monsoon season. This fact makes it extremely difficult and expensive to build modern transportation and communication networks. The river boats and ferries traditionally used for transportation are cheap, but slow and inefficient. The situation is further complicated by the fact that the Bangladeshi government has sharply limited resources not only for building new infrastructure but also for maintaining the existing one.

From the colonial era Bangladesh inherited underdeveloped and unevenly distributed infrastructure and transportation networks. Poor and inefficient infrastructure undermined the economic development in the country, and only recently has the government been able to address the problem systematically and channel investments towards expanding its highways, railroads, seaports, and airports. More recently, with international assistance the government has also started to modernize its telecommunications infrastructure and introduce the Internet.

Bangladesh is served by a network of 201,182 kilometers (125,014 miles) of primary and secondary roads, but only around 10 percent of them, or 19,112 kilometers (11,876 miles) are paved.

In June 1998 the huge US$1 billion Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge was completed, becoming the 12th-longest bridge in the world. The bridge connected for the first time the eastern and western parts of Bangladesh. The completion of this project made an important contribution to the development of the country's transportation network and significantly boosted the quality and speed of passenger and freight transportation.

Bangladesh has a railway system of about 2,745 kilometers (1,706 miles), of which only 923 kilometers (573.5 miles) is a broad gauge (1.676 meter gauge) and the remaining 1,822 kilometers (1,132 miles) is narrow gauge (1.000 meter gauge),. Major links run from the largest Bangladeshi port, Chittagong, to Dhaka and further to the north of the country; other links connect such centers as Khulna and Rajshahi. Historically, the railway was built by the British colonial administration in 1884, running between Calcutta (now India) and Khulna (now Bangladesh). Rail services were halted following the Indo-Pakistan war in 1965. In the 1970s cargo trains resumed their services between the 2 countries. According to a BBC report on 26 January 2001, the government of Bangladesh has expressed its interest in "seriously studying the potential of linking the national railways with the proposed Trans-Asian Railway Network." The Bangladeshi railway system remains a state-owned monopoly requiring large investment for upgrading and modernization.

Construction sector to witness double digit growth
Construction sector of the country is set to post double digit growth in the current fiscal year, Fy18.

Provisional estimation of the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) showed that the sector is set to post 10.11 per cent growth in FY18, which was 8.77 per cent in the previous fiscal year.

The sector's share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is also estimated to increase to 7.53 per cent in the current fiscal, which was 7.36 per cent in Fy17.

The value of the economic activities of the sector is estimated at Tk 737.17 billion for Fy18.

Meanwhile, the latest labour force survey showed that some 3.43 million workers are now employed in this sector.

Construction sector is one of the 15 major sectors that contribute to the GDP.

It is also placed under the broader industry sector of the economy

The Mineral Industry of Bangladesh
In 2014, the mineral industry of Bangladesh produced mainly cement, coal, natural gas, iron and steel, petroleum, salt, and stone. The country lacks reserves of metallic minerals but is prospective for natural gas. Bangladesh and neighbouring countries Burma (to the east) and India (to the west) were involved in a maritime boundary dispute concerning their respective sovereignty in the Bay of Bengal. For many years, these countries had attempted to negotiate and delimit their claims in the disputed area. In July 2014, an arbitral tribunal established under Annex VII of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) delimited the maritime boundary between Bangladesh and India, which included the territorial sea, an exclusive economic zone, and the continental shelf within and beyond 200 nautical miles. According to the Bangladesh Government, the Bay of Bengal had great potential for undersea resources; therefore, it was a priority for the Government to resolve the boundary disputes and open up its offshore entitlements to foreign investors for hydrocarbon exploration. In 2012, Bangladesh resolved its maritime dispute with Burma by a ruling made by the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) for the settlement of their boundary delimitation (Burke, 2014; Deutsche Welle, 2014

Minerals in the National Economy According to the Central Bank of Bangladesh, in fiscal year 2014 (July 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014), mining and quarrying accounted for about 1.6% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP),
 
Ease of Doing Business in Bangladesh  
Bangladesh is ranked 177 among 190 economies in the ease of doing business, according to the latest World Bank annual ratings. The rank of Bangladesh deteriorated to 177 in 2017 from 176 in 2016. Ease of Doing Business in Bangladesh averaged 143.90 from 2008 until 2017, reaching an all time high of 178 in 2015 and a record low of 115 in 2008.

Recently Bangladesh has gone one notch down in the World Bank's ranking of ease of doing business mainly due to the hurdle businesses face here at the start of their operations.

The WB's Doing Business report 2018 showed that Bangladesh achieved slightly more points than last year's but still its ranking slipped for fall in some indicators in addition to starting business.

Starting business here is difficult, particularly because the initial spending on getting licence, permits, is very high, according to the report.

The country holds 177th position among 190 economies while it ranked 176th last year going two notches up from the previous year.

Among the eight South Asian countries, Bangladesh is only ahead of Afghanistan that ranked 183th in the “Doing Business 2018.